本科毕业论文英文汇总十篇

时间:2023-04-28 08:50:43

本科毕业论文英文

本科毕业论文英文篇(1)

二、本科生导师介入下的英专毕业论文指导模式探究

本科毕业论文英文篇(2)

Itisasignificantandunforgettableexperienceformetospendsuchalongtimeonwriting,modifyingandpolishingthisthesis.Manykind-heartedpeoplegivemeagreatamountofhelp,professionaladviceandencouragement.Thus,hereIwouldliketoexpressmysinceregratitudetothem.

Firstofall,IwillshowmysincerethankstomysupervisorProfessorJiaAiwuwhohasgivenmeinvaluableguidanceandconstantsupportandencouragementthroughoutthewholeprocesses.DuringmystudyofEnglisheducationinthistwoahalfyearsandthewittingofthisthesis,shehasalwaysbeengeneroustooffermeusefulsuggestions,answermyquestionanddiscussresearchquestionswithme.Herdetailguidanceandhelpfulcommentsonmythesisencouragemetoovercomedifficultiesandthinkmorecriticallyduringtheprocessesofwriting.

Secondly,IwillalsoexpressmysinceregratitudetootherprofessorandteacherswhohadgivemeconstructivesuggestiontomythesisandthankstothemforinstructingmetoconstructmyknowledgeinEnglishteachinginthepasttwoandahalfyears.

Thirdly,Iwanttothankallmyaffectionateclassmatesandfriends.Duringthetwoahalfyears'studyandthewritingofthisthesis,theyhavegivenmealotofsupportandencouragementintheirownways.

Atlast,Iwillgivethedeepestgratitudetomyfamilyfortheirregretlesssupportandlovetome.

论文致谢二:

Firstandforemost,Iwouldliketoexpressmyheartfeltgratitudetomysupervisor,ProfessorJiaAiwu.Ihavebenefitedtremendouslyfromhercriticalthinkingandinsightfulviewpoint.Throughhispatientinstruction,Ifinallyfocusedontheobjectstudiedinthisthesis,andobtainedvaluableadviceonaspectsrangingfromframeworkconstructinganddatacollectiontoelaboratedanalysis.

Secondly,I'mprofuselygratefultomyrespectedpredecessorsandteachers.

Withouttheirprecioussuggestions,Icouldnothavecomethisfarinthisthesis.

Moreover,Iowemythankstomyfamilyandfriends,whohavealwayssupportedmewiththeirgenerousencouragementsandpraises.

Lastbutnotleast,Isincerelythankmyfellowclassmates.Wesharejoysandanxieties,whichpropelsusforwardtogetherthroughoutthearduousjourney.

论文致谢三:

Theaccomplishmentofthisthesishascoveredhalfayear,sexperimentandanotherhalfayear'sanalysis.Itcannotbedeniedthatwholeprocessisquitetough.Despitealltheproblemsduringresearchandlimitations,thethesisfinallycomesintobeing.However,thiscannotbeachievedwithoutthehelpofmanypeople.

Firstandforemost,Iwouldliketogivemysinceregratitudetomydistinguishedandrespectablesupervisor,Prof.QiYuanfang,forhisall-alongsupportsduringnotonlytheresearchprocess,butthewholepost-graduateyear.Heistheonewhogivesmeinspirationofthethesistopic,enlightensmeempiricalmethodhelpsmeconductteachingexperiment,andinstructsmeanalyzingapproaches.Ihavetosaythatthisthesisisbornfromhisinsightfulinstructionsandwarmencouragement.

Secondly,IalsoownmyappreciationtoProf,Gongrongwhogivesmealotofinspiration,insightfuladviceandinstructions.

Andalso,thisthesiscannotbeaccomplishedwithoutteachersofForeignLanguagesSchoolwhoimpartknowledgetomeandclassmateswhooffermehelp.

Lastbutnotleast,Iwouldliketoextendmythankstothestudentsparticipatinginthisresearchfortheirpatientcorporation.

论文致谢四:

IwouldliketodedicatemypapertoallthosewhohaveofferedmetremendousassistanceduringthethreeyearsinZhejiangUniversityofFinanceandEconomics.

Firstofall,myheartiestthanksflowtomysupervisor,ProfessorCaoDaogen,forhishelpfulguidance,valuablesuggestionsandconstantencouragementbothinmystudyandinmylife.Hisprofoundinsightandaccuratenessaboutmypapertaughtmesomuchthattheyareengravedonmyheart.Heprovidedmewithbeneficialhelpandofferedmepreciouscommentsduringthewholeprocessofmywriting,withoutwhichthepaperwouldnotbewhatitisnow.

Also,Iwouldliketoexpressmysinceregratitudetoalltheprofessorswhohavetaughtmeinthisuniversitythatgreatlybroadenedmyhorizonandenrichedmyknowledgeinmystudy.Theirinspirationalandconscientiousteachinghaveprovidedmewithafirmbasisforthecomposingofthispaperandwillalwaysbeofgreatvaluetomyfutureacademicresearch.

Mythanksalsogotothescholarswhosemonographsandacademicpapershaveenlightenedmeinthewritingofthispaper.

Finally,Iwouldliketoextendmydeepgratefulnesstomyfamilyandfriends,especiallymythreeroommates,ChenLinghua,GongShaandHuangJin,whoseencouragementandsupporthavemademyaccomplishmentspossible.

论文致谢五:

ThisthesiswouldnotcomeintobeingifIhadnotreceivedhelpfrommysupervisor,teachers,classmates,andfamily.Theyofferedmesomuchencouragement,withoutwhichIcouldhavealreadygivenup.ButbeforeIexpressmysincerestgratitudetothem,IwouldthankmyGod.ItwasalwaysHewhofirstcametohelpmewhenmyfaithwasinfluencedbyBlake'sunorthodoxtheologicalthinking.AgainitwasHewhogavemewisdomandpatiencetodowhateverIdidforhisglory.

“Whateveryourhandfindstodo,doitwithallyourmight.”(NIV,Ecclesiastes9:10)AndhereistheprayerwhenIwasinthevalleyofdespair:“MaythefavoroftheLordourGodrestuponus;establishtheworkofourhandsforus-yes,establishtheworkofourhands.”(Psalm91:17)ItisHisfaithfulnessandunfailinglovethaturgedmetowritethethesiswithallmymight.

MysupervisorXuXiaodongdidoffermesomuchhelpthatIfeelsogratefultohim.Hehaslentmeoverthirtyvaluablemonographs,biographies,anthologies,andcollectionsofessays.Nearlyallofthebookswereboughtfromabroadathisownexpense.Hisferventloveforliterature,hisrelentlesspursuitofknowledge,andhismeticulousattitudetowardsresearchmanifestthepersonalitiesandqualitiesIshouldcultivateasaqualifiedscholar.WheneverIsenthimanarticlehealwaysgavemeprecioussuggestionsthatreallyimprovedmycriticalthinkingalot.FormanytimesIfailedtokeepmypromise,heforgavemeandkeptencouragingmetopursuemystudies.Igivemymostgenuinelygratitudetohimforhisgeneroushelp.

Besidesmysupervisor,Ihavebenefitedfrommanyotherteachers.Prof.ZhangRuwen,Prof.YiJianhong,Prof.JiangYuebin,SunJiurongandWeiLina,theyhavetaughtmemanycriticalapproachesandbroadenedthescopeofmyknowledgeinvariousfieldsofliterature.Moreover,Iwouldliketoextendmygratitudetomyclassmatesandroommates.Theytaughtmehowtobalancestudyandrest.Ialsothankmyfamily,especiallymysister,whocametomyschoolmanytimestovisitme.

本科毕业论文英文篇(3)

专 业: 英 语

学 号: 00000000

指导教师: 赵 草 稿

20xx年5月

thesis writing standard for english major undergraduates:with a thesis pattern

by

lü ren’ai

shangqiu normal university

may 20xx

摘 要

{摘要是论文的浓缩,应包括结论等内容,是完整的短文,具有独立性,可以单独使用。即使不看论文全文的内容,看摘要仍然可以理解论文的主要内容。切忌把导论(introduction)的内容作为摘要内容。在下段键入中文摘要内容,并用论文的关键词替换“关键词”后的词(删除多余的词)。如果需要输入顿号(、)、间隔号(·)、书名号(《》)、破折号(——)等标点符号,不会键入请从这里复制。中文摘要要求在200~300字。}

关键词:词1;词2;词3;词4;词5

abstract

{英文摘要及关键词内容与中文内容完全一致。注意看懂附录部分标点符号部分的内容,不要用不规范的形式输入标点符号,更不要输入错误符号。在下段键入英文摘要内容并用论文的关键词替换“key words”后的词(删除多余的词)。}

key words: word 1; word 2; word 3; word 4; word 5

contents

摘 要 i

abstract ii

contents iii

1 简介 1

2 电子版与纸质版 1

3 模板的使用 1

3.1 键入文本 2

3.2 应用格式 2

4 论文结构与写作要求 2

4.1 封面与题目 3

4.1.1 封面 3

4.1.2 题目 3

4.2 从摘要到目录 3

4.3 正文 3

4.3.1 总体要求 3

4.3.2 标题和层次 3

4.3.3 例句及其他列表项 4

4.3.4 脚注 4

4.3.5 引用标识与参考文献 4

4.3.6 附录(可选) 6

4.3.7 页眉 6

5 其他要求及注意事项 6

references 7

附录 标点符号的计算机输入 7

简介

{本科毕业论文是本科生毕业前的最后一个重要学习环节,是学习深化的重要过程。它既是学生学习、研究与实践成果的全面总结,又是对学生素质与能力的一次全面检验,也是申请学士学位的依据。论文写作是在前人研究的基础上提出自己的观点,严禁抄袭、剽窃。外语学院参照商丘师范学院本科毕业论文撰写规范,结合英语专业的实际情况,特制定本撰写规范兼论文模板,作为英语专业毕业论文写作的标准。本规范未尽事宜,在导师指导下自行处理。务必在仔细、完整地阅读本规范之后再开始写作论文。

考虑到软件可能存在问题,本规范的doc版在显示时可能走样,附件1是本规范的pdf版本,其样式是标准样式。}

电子版与纸质版

{论文须提交初稿、二稿及终稿的电子版和纸质版。用microsoft word软件打开本规范的doc版,以新文件名另存到自己存放毕业论文资料的文件夹,要求文件格式为doc格式(microsoft word 1997~2003/xp版本的默认保存格式);2007及以后的版本的默认保存格式是docx,建议尽量使用较老版本的microsoft word,若使用新版,请确保保存格式为doc。另存后,直接按照本规范的要求操作直到初稿完成;每一稿都先作另存的操作再开始修改。注意在整个论文写作期间都做好u盘与网络双备份工作。

纸质文件采用a4复印纸单面打印,左侧装订。提交的纸质论文必须与提交的电子版内容完全一样。如果在写论文时安装、使用了非系统自带字体(如国际音标字体),请随电子版提交该字体文件。}

模板的使用

{本规范的doc格式电子文件是毕业论文的写作模板,提供论文写作所需样式,便于写作和修改,并对格式进行统一要求。下面对模板的使用作一简要说明。}

键入文本

{用花括号扩起来的内容是模板说明性内容,在初稿写作完毕后删除。把插字符打到正文任何一个段落(包括标题)末尾,按回车,即可键入论文内容。请仔细阅读附录,以便正确输入标点符号。}

应用格式

{本模板规定的格式有:[ 注意例子中的换行符(向下的直箭头)。想使编号段落的上下两行左对齐,需要换行而不分段,单击“插入”“分隔符”,选“换行符”,然后单击“确定”。]

a. 1标题1:用于一级标题;b. 1.1标题2:用于二级标题:c. 1.1.1标题3:用于三级标题:d. 正文不缩:用于一般正文段落;e. 正文左缩:用于独立成段的引文;f. 正文编号:用于按规定必须编号的段落;g. (1) 编号:用于按规定必须编号的段落;h. 参考文献:用于参考文献条目。

其中除了 (1f) 和 (1g) 要求必须用格式刷复制、粘贴格式(详见第4.3.3部分的说明),其他格式都必须从格式窗格中选。默认格式是“正文不缩”(本段使用的就是这种格式)。根据不同部分内容要求的要求按照下述方法应用格式,不能擅自更改或更换(可根据实际情况作字体倾斜等操作):把插字符打到某段,单击菜单栏里的“格式”,选“样式和格式”,在右边出现的格式窗格中单击所需格式即可。出现在格式窗格中但 (1) 中没列的格式不能随便应用。}

论文结构与写作要求

{论文必须包括外封面(中文封面)、内封面(英文封面)、中文摘要(附中文关键词)、英文摘要(附英文关键词)、目录、正文、参考文献。在参考文献之后可有附录。}

封面与题目

封面

{封面包括两个:外封面(中文封面)和内封面(英文封面),封面样式严格依照模版。}

题目

{用论文题目替换模板题目,不能改变格式。论文题目应该简短、明确、有概括性。中文字数不超过25个字,外文题目不超过15个实词,题目末不使用标点符号,中外文题名应一致。标题中尽量不用英文缩写词,必须采用时,应使用本行业通用缩写词。中英文标题均占一至两行。中文标题如有副标题,主副标题各占一行,副标题前加中文破折号;英文副标题不单独成行,与主标题之间用冒号(后加空格)隔开。英文题目用标题式大小写格式,由于标题式大小写没有统一的标准,本规范要求除了不位于主、副标题开头和结尾的冠词、介词(不论长短)、并列连词、动词不定式标志to等词,所有的词(包括复合词的连字符后的部分,但不包括像twenty-one这样的复合数词的连字符后面的部分)都大写。}

从摘要到目录

{具体要求见第i至iii页。不要改动用罗马数字编号的页码部分的标题。}

正文

总体要求

{论文正文应包括引论、主体(主体至少分两大部分)及结论等部分,一共最少四部分,最多六部分。正文用英文写,拼写形式全文统一为英式或美式(直接引用时例外),不能英美式混杂。用阿拉伯数字编写页码的部分字数不少于3000字(英文单词)。}

标题和层次

{标题要求除了有编号、字号不同和不能有副标题这几点外,其他要求同论文英文题目。层次根据实际需要用两层或三层(即标题最多有两到三级),主体部分至少有一部分包含两层。可以直接替换本规范的标题(选定后不删除而直接键入),根据需要添加、删除标题。三层标题的格式分别采用“1标题1”、“1.1标题2”和“1.1.1标题3”。编号用的是word的多级编号,在增删标题时编号会自动调整,无需手工调整。}

例句及其他列表项

{根据需要,例句、规则等尽量单独成段,统一编号,编号用 (1),(2),(3) ……的形式(顶格),全文从 (1) 开始统一连续编号(自动编号,增删编号段落后编号会自动调整),样式参照本规范的编号段落。该类段落的规定格式是“正文编号”;要求用格式刷从本规范的任何一个这类编号段落复制、粘贴格式,不要从格式窗格中选这类段落的样式。复制格式的方法是:把插字符打到任何一个此类已编号的段落中,单击“格式刷”按钮,然后再单击需要编号的段落。脚注中的例句编号用小写罗马数字i、ii、iii的形式,段落和文字格式不作特别要求。现再举例如下 (由于连续编号,故号码继续前面的 (1),是 (2) 和 (3)),作为翻译和对话类例句的参照格式:

john likes mary.约翰喜欢玛丽。

a: do you like apples?b: yes.}

脚注

{对文中内容的注释采用脚注形式[ 注释分脚注和尾注两种主要形式,前者的内容位于每页下面,后者的内容位于文章末尾。本规范规定论文写作使用脚注,不使用尾注。把插字符打到正文中需要注释的地方,单击“插入”“引用”,在展开的子菜单中单击“脚注和尾注”,再单击“确定”,键入注释内容。本注释就是脚注的形式。],全文连续编号(自动调整编号)。}

引用标识与参考文献

{引文是论证的辅助手段,应忠于原意,准确切题。除非特别必要,不要引用非学术文献,如通俗读物等,尤其不要引用非专业人士(如名人或领袖)的话或观点作为自己观点的支撑(尽量避免诸如“einstein says”、“confucius claims”这样的话,如果确实有必要引用一定要详细注明出处)。根据情况用直接引语或间接引语的语法形式;直接引用文字超过四至六行字时,或诗歌超过两行时,应独立成段,应用“正文左缩”格式,下面是该格式的样式:

text texttext text text. (zhang 2005, 88)

在论文中引用文献时,应加以标识,详细说明见附件2。引用的文献如果是用中文书写的,不能直接引用中文文本,必须将其意思用英文表达,一般用间接引语的形式安排,在必要时可用直接引语的形式,在后面以加方括号,方括号内注明translation mine)。

参考文献直接反映论文的质量。要求在论文正文后的references下面列出在论文中引用或参考过的论文、专著及其他资料(采用“参考文献”格式),所有条目按照作者姓氏的字母顺序排列,不要编号。不能罗列文中没有引用的文献。文献条目应以与论文工作直接相关的近年的学术文献为主,包括期刊论文、博士学位论文、论文集里的文章、专著等;至少十条,且以期刊论文为主,近五年的文献占五条以上,发表在《中文核心期刊要目总览》收录的期刊上的论文占三条以上。

毕业论文的引用及参考文献体例以chicago体例(chicago style)的作者—年代制(author-year system)为标准。附件2包含了该标准的主要内容,请尽量按该标准写作。请注意大小写、正斜体、空格、姓与名的相对顺序、缩写形式、标点符号等。特别注意连数符不是连字符(-),而是en dash(–),可从这里复制。下面把该标准的大小写和正斜体原则略述如下:

大小写:仅同名连续出版物(如期刊journal)的名称用标题式大写,其他的主副标题名称(包括书名)用句子式大写;

正斜体:广义的书名(包括期刊名等)用斜体,文章名(包括书的章节标题、学位论文标题)用正体。

中文文献,按照附件2第9、12页的红字的范例的样式,把汉字形式的文字转写成拉丁字母形式(注意ü不能用v代替),并把标题翻译成英文(置于方括号内)。其姓名与普通英文姓名一样处理,第一作者姓前名后,姓、名之间用逗号 + 空格隔开,非第一作者用名前姓后(不加逗号)的形式。}

附录(可选)

{不宜放在正文中但有重要参考价值的内容(如问卷、测试题等)可编入论文的附录中,位于参考文献之后。附录采用appendix(只有一个)或appendix a、appendix b(两个以上)的形式,后面加两个空格再键入附录的标题,使用格式“1标题1”,删除标题前面的自动编号。}

页眉

{见第i页右上角的说明。}

其他要求及注意事项

{在写作时请注意以下几点:

除在直接引语中,尽量避免用缩略词(如isn’t, don’t, etc.等),尽量使用is not, do not, and others等形式。

罗马数字用西文字符,如i和ii,ii和iv等(在英文输入状态下分别键入i、v、i、v等字母来组合),不要用中文字符ⅰ、ⅱ、ⅳ、ⅰ、ⅱ、ⅳ等。

区别元语言与对象语言。用英文写作,元语言是英文,对象语言是谈到的语言成份,可能是英文,也可能是其他语言,如英文字母、语素、词、短语、句子等。如果对象语言的文字是拉丁字母形式(如英文、法文、德文等),一律用不加引号的斜体字(编号例句除外),保留字母上面的两点等附加符号。在写非翻译研究类论文时,非拉丁字母文字(如日文、中文)一般应转写成拉丁字母形式,用不加引号的斜体字;在非用汉字不可的情况下(区别歧义、说明字型等)在拉丁字母形式的字词(斜体)后跟相应汉字(楷书、正体)或日文假名等字符;汉语无特殊情况其拉丁化标准一律采用汉语拼音(本规范要求词内无空格,词间有空格,略去调号),注意ü不能用v代替。翻译研究类文章可不转写成拉丁字母形式而直接使用汉字例句(用不加引号的正体字)。用单引号而不是双引号表各种意思,尤其是词(句)的语义解释(双引号作一般引用或强调时使用,双引号内再用引号时用单引号)。下面几个例子可以说明对象语言的处理方式和单引号的用法:the chinese word heiban ‘blackboard’ is a compound; similarly, the english word blackboard is also a compound;hongcha means ‘black tea’;the letter a;the suffix -ful;the sentence john hates mary;the articles the, a, an。注意在最后一个例子中,第一个定冠词属于元语言,不用斜体,第二个定冠词和两个不定冠词是对象语言,用斜体,属于对象语言的三个词之间的逗号属于元语言,用正体。}

references

{此标题不要改动。条目格式见第4.3.5部分的要求,下面提供参考文献条目的样式:

本科毕业论文英文篇(4)

毕业论文写作是考查学生综合能力、评估学业成绩的一个重要方式。完成毕业论文的写作与答辩是学生取得毕业资格、获得学士学位的必备条件。为了更好地规范高师院校英语专业毕业论文写作的教学与指导,我们以长春师范学院英语专业2009届学生

为研究对象,探讨了毕业论文写作课程的设置及教师的指导策略。

一、英语专业毕业论文写作课程的设置

《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》中并未规定高校是否需要开设毕业论文写作课程,因此鲜有高校把毕业论文写作纳入教学计划中。但从实际情况来看,开设毕业论文写作课能够有效地提高学生毕业论文撰写能力,并且培养其独立思考、探索的科研能力。我校2009―2011三年开设了毕业论文写作课程,笔者仅以此为基础得出一些经验:

1.课时安排

毕业论文写作能力的提高绝不是一蹴而就的,在二年级与三年级开设写作课时,教师可以渗透毕业论文写作要求,安排学生查阅资料、写学期论文等。在此基础之上,我们把毕业论文写作课程与教师单独指导相结合。

2.教学内容

毕业论文写作课往往涉及如下内容:论文选题、开题报告、文献综述、文献检索、写作技巧、专题写作、研究方法、论文格式、论文修改、常见错误评析、论文答辩及注意事项等。近年来,我国出版了很多关于英语专业本科毕业论文写作方面的专著与教材,但考虑到此门课程的实用性及学时的局限性等因素,任课教师需要自行选择与整理,总结出适合所教学生学习程度的教学内容,使学生在最短的时间内快速、清晰地掌握论文写作要领。

3.教学方法

此门课程强调培养学生的实践能力,因此教学形式应该是教师讲授与学生操练相结合。教师讲完每章节内容后,布置相关任务要求学生课后完成,之后再根据其完成情况进行总结,或是让学生以小组形式进行讨论,互相评价与修正。同时,教师也应该提供优秀论文与问题论文供学生参考、借鉴,让学生从评论者的角度去发现问题、解决问题。这样,通过讲解可以引导学生开展下一步的工作,通过实践又能使学生避免不必要的错误。

4.考核办法

本课程以考核学生的平时任务完成为主,辅以期末考试考查理论知识及对知识的实际应用。平时的任务形式包括小组活动、资料搜集、实验设计等,而期末考试可以以开卷形式进行或是要求学生事先准备,写与所选题目相关的文献综述、论文各部分,如引言等。

二、教师的针对性指导

论文写作课只是为学生建构了毕业论文写作的大体框架,而具体的实施则需要指导教师给予学生有针对性的辅导。两者应同步进行,相辅相成。

1.毕业论文的选题直接关系到论文的完成质量

在论文写作课初步介绍完论文选题之后,教师可以给出和自己研究方向紧密相关的论文题目供学生选择。这样,教师可以给予学生更多的帮助,同时也可以让学生参与到自己的研究中,做到教学相长。

2.指导学生科研方法,培养学生科研能力

教师还应该着重注意指导学生查阅资料,了解最新的研究动态,避免学生思路闭塞以致题目陈旧、没有研究价值。另外,由于专业特点,很多学生选择了英语教学法,但他们的论文往往只限于文献研究,并不能真正与教学相联系。教师可以指导并帮助学生结合论文课上所讲的科研方法,设计试验,做调查分析等,真正培养学生的研究能力。

3.要加强对毕业论文的监督力度

教师要对学生进行诚信教育,强化指导与监控,力求避免抄袭现象。同时,也要督促学生合理规划时间,及时与老师沟通,保质保量地完成论文撰写工作。

毕业论文写作是大学英语专业毕业前最后一项也是极为重要的一个教学环节,它的顺利完成需要学生、学校和教师三方面的共同努力。我们希望规范的教学及指导能帮助学生养成科学的研究态度,形成严谨的学术作风,为他们将来的工作打下良好的基础。

参考文献:

[1]程小蔷.英语专业毕业论文指导策略研究[J].成人高教学刊,2010(2).

[2]吴俊.关于本科院校开设英语毕业论文写作课的思考[J].忻州师范学院学报,2011-08.

作者简介:

本科毕业论文英文篇(5)

英语专业本科毕业论文写作有着重要的意义,《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》认为它是考查学生语言能力、独立能力和创新能力的重要参考,“评估学业成绩的一个重要方式”。[1]近年来,虽然有了更多关于英语专业毕业论文写作的研究,内容既涉及微观的选题、摘要、主题句、语言和格式问题,又涉及宏观的现状分析、论文指导体系和评估机制问题。[2][3][4][5][6]然而,却鲜有学者论及网络资源的利用。这不仅与我国高校丰富的中英文电子图书资源和全球几千亿之巨的中英文网页资源明显不协调,[7][8]而且与很多本科学生的实际上网情况和毕业论文对网络资源的严重滥用很不协调。因此,如何在毕业论文写作过程中预防网络抄袭、合理有效地利用日益发达的网络环境和日益丰富的网络资源,是适应信息时展、进一步提高英语专业本科毕业论文质量的急迫需要解决的问题。本文拟探讨如何利用丰富的中英文网络资源,发挥个人网络信息能力,实现毕业论文写作的网络策略,在方便教师论文指导和管理的同时,也方便学生更灵活地运用自己的时间和空间,减少论文写作的工作量,降低论文写作的难度,进而有效地提高毕业论文写作的效率和质量。

一、络写作策略的基本原则

结合学生的经济、社会和文化背景,网络写作策略应该遵循以下原则:(1)资金节约原则。尽量免除不必要的经济压力,充分利用现有的个人电脑、联网手机或者公共电脑的软硬件设施,同时发挥个人的网络和现实人际关系,有效获取所需资源。(2)时间和空间灵活利用原则。网络写作的主要目的之一就是实现随时随地上网就可以写作的构想。(3)语言文化的敏感原则。首先,由于大多数电脑或者手机设备的系统都使用中文软件,因此为了在搜索英文信息时不受中文信息的干扰,需要把网页浏览器的语言环境进行调整,并且把国外搜索引擎的偏好和指令语言都改为英语。其次,英语论文与中文论文有较大的区别,在写作过程中要尽量避免汉语语言文化的负迁移。(4)遵守国家的互联网相关法律法规。

同时,虽然毕业论文的长度、语言、结构、格式和内容都是对本科学生严肃的挑战,但英美国家长期的学术传统和相应网络资源的丰富已经能够在较大程度上解决很多问题。所以在写作过程中学生要对自己的信息需求保持敏感,遵守信息素质原则,在实际行动中贯彻信息获取、评价、整理和合理利用的基本步骤,挖掘并发挥网络资源优势,自主解决论文写作中的诸多问题。

二、毕业论文的网络写作策略

根据网络、网络资源和毕业论文写作过程的特征,网络写作策略的成分包括:硬件环境、软件环境、网络和毕业论文的相关知识、信息处理、写作模板和样本、语言工具、通讯工具、论文修改工具和反抄袭检查。

网络写作的硬件环境由能够进行上网服务的手机和电脑构成。公共网吧和学校的计算机实验中心不存在这方面的问题。但是,如果办理个人手机或者电脑上网业务,就要认真阅读产品说明书,确认自己的手机或者电脑具备所需要的无线或者有线硬件配置;而且,无线服务的覆盖范围要能够满足自己的个人需要。总的来说,近几年的手提电脑和2009年上市的手机终端通常都支持高速无线上网服务。

网络写作的软件环境包括浏览器软件、文档阅读和编辑软件、文档转换软件,以及文档存储服务几个方面。很多电脑上网浏览软件(如Internet Explorer,Google Chrome)都有相应的手机版浏览软件,但更常用的手机浏览器却是Opera,UCWEB和GO。在通过设置正确的上网方式后,手机和电脑就能利用浏览器使用大多数共同资源了。网络上有较多优秀的在线free word processors,不需要在电脑或者手机上安装。使用方便而功能又几乎能与Microsoft Word媲美的当属Google Documents。用户通过联网手机或者电脑在获得免费Gmail账户后即可进入自己的文档空间,创建文件并进行编辑和储存,安全性能较高。其它所涉及的软件主要依据资料的文档类型而定,但通常是.doc,.ppt,.xls文件,这些都能上传到Google Docs打开或编辑;对于.caj,.kdh,.pdf,.省略、搜搜问问)、电子商务(如淘宝网店)、电子图书馆、个人社会关系获取或者传递所需的电子资源。把握所需信息必须了解的程度,适可而止,同时也要明确不同信息的所需类型(网络工具书、普通网络文本、网络图书、电子学术期刊、图片资料、视频资料、音频资料、软件、数据库等),以便于利用搜索引擎的不同功能或者专门搜索引擎进行比较准确的查找,或者便于确定在广域网还是学校电子图书馆查找。信息的评价是指通过阅读所获信息、比较同类资源、查询作者背景、查看网站域名和信息组织方式等,筛选获得的信息。通常,如果信息者没有学术或者高校工作背景,可以查看网站是否属于.edu,.gov.省略网域来作出初步评估。信息的整理是指通过summarizing,synthesizing,paraphrasing,quoting,highlighting和commenting等方式进行处理,利用众多的免费在线软件服务,对过滤后的信息作用进行评价和标识,并通过超链接等方式把它们整合到自己的写作计划中。信息的使用是指合理合法地使用资源,尊重信息者的使用协议,遵循APA,MLA或者CMS等文献使用的学术道德规范。

络写作过程中还有一些标准模板和自动程序可以使用;常用的有论文写作模板和文献引用的自动生成程序。很多美国大学和研究机构都有MLA,APA或者CMS格式的论文写作模板(template)可以下载,写作者只需要在相应版块写入相应内容即可。但选用的时候要注意模板所对应的论文格式印刷版本,以避免信息陈旧问题。而论文文献格式的自动生成程序(bibliography generator)则可以帮助解决复杂的引用规范问题。使得文内引用(in-text citation)、脚注和尾注(footnote and endnote),以及文后的书目制作轻而易举就能完成。在众多的相关程序中,综合性和信度都比较高的是Son of Citation Machine;它包括了主要文献格式和主要文献类型的引用格式,也及时更新了文献格式的版本,是网络写作的可靠资源之一。

论文写作过程中的信息沟通主要是和指导老师的充分交流,和同学的必要交流,以及和虚拟社区相关人士的有限交流。与指导老师交流的目的是为了提高论文整体质量和按时完成毕业论文,可以通过手机或者电脑的电子邮件或者实时通讯软件(communication software)实现;和同学交流主要是为了获取或者交流信息,也可以通过手机或者电脑的电子邮件或者实时通讯软件实现;和虚拟社区相关人士的交流主要是为了在保证信息安全的情况下获取所需信息,主要通过社区群组(groups,communities,forums)和电子邮件来实现。

利用网络写作本科毕业论文可以比较有效地防止网络抄袭行为,包括表层网络抄袭、深层网络抄袭和网络兜售的论文。表层网络抄袭是指抄袭不需要提交用户信息就可以检索到的网页资源,付费的数据库和网络资源不在此列。除了把学生论文的可疑部分或者关键部分的关键词放到通用搜索引擎中搜索以外,还可以使用在线的文献抄袭检测系统(plagiarism checker/detector/scanner)发现这种行为,譬如EVE2和Viper Anti-plagiarism Scanner。深层网络抄袭主要是指抄袭数据库资源。检测这种行为可以分为两种策略:一是关键词搜索:先把论文的可疑部分或者关键部分通过国内外数据库专用搜索引擎进行检索;在检测到抄袭行为的情况下,如果可能,还可以把相应的论文下载到本地计算机,通过文件对比软件(file comparison software)确定抄袭的比率(如弗吉尼亚大学的免费软件WCopyfind);二是购买以数据库为主的反抄袭服务,如CheckForPlagiarism和CNKI英文检测系统。由于学生提交的稿件都是电子文档,指导老师可以较早地把学生的论文上传到在线检测系统,及时阻止网络抄袭行为。随着高等教育的发展,国内的论文作坊也不计其数,英语专业本科论文价格也依据性质的不同而价格各异。通常,他们数据库中的论文价格在300元人民币左右,而“原创性”的论文则需要1000元以上。在一般情况下,通过在本地计算机或者手机上查看文档属性或者高级属性就可以发现问题。如果结合论文写作过程管理(包括对选题、提纲、原始资料及论文稿件版本的审查),论文作弊的成本就会大大增加。通过查看电子文档属性、对比不同的电子文档版本、跟踪学生的论文修改情况,只是简单地点几个键,买方和卖方就会面临很大的信用风险。这些措施可以在相当程度上规避不诚实行为。

三、结语

手机或者电脑网络积聚了丰富的信息资源、提供了发达的通讯功能;英语专业本科毕业论文的网络写作已经具备了比较成熟的条件。论文过程所涉及的选题、提纲撰写、资料收集、稿件写作、问题咨询、指导和管理等环节都可以通过网络软硬件资源来完成。相对于传统的论文写作方法,网络写作策略具有诸多的独特作用。它首先赋予了论文写作更灵活的时间和地点,比较适合当前教学和科研任务繁重的英语教师及四处奔波的大四学生。其次,网络写作策略延伸了论文指导老师的内涵,网络上千千万万的信息提供者都或多或少充当了这个角色,大大减轻了师生双方的压力。再次,老师可以从以往语言或者格式等繁琐问题中抽身出来,更多地从写作过程的简便性、结构的合理性、内容的思想性等方面给学生提供建议,帮助学生自主解决毕业论文写作中的诸多问题。最后,网络写作策略还能够有效利用网络资源阻止泛滥的学术不端行为,培养学术诚信。

但在网络写作策略实施过程中,我们可能遇到的两个常见问题是:(1)由于资金等因素影响,有的优秀网络资源可能不稳定,间歇或者长期不可获取;(2)由于信息太多或者太少而茫然不知所措。对于前者,需要保持比较灵活的资源使用态度,善于寻找替代资源。而资源太多时则要增加限制条件,利用高级搜索功能缩小范围;在资源缺乏时则要减少限制条件或者更改搜索关键词,寻找另外的解决办法。总之,日益丰富的信息存在于不可见的网络上,只要能合理有效地利用网络资源,就可以把毕业论文的网络写作策略发挥好,从而有效提高毕业论文写作的效率和质量。

参考文献:

[1]高等学校外语专业教学指导委员会英语组.高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲[S].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000.

[2]穆凤英.英语专业本科生毕业论文的调查与思考[J].徐州师范大学学报,2001.27(4):138-142.

[3]孙文抗.英语专业学士论文写作现状分析[J].外语界,2004,101(3):59-64.

[4]颜静兰,倪薇.英语专业毕业论文规范操作思考[J].外国语言文学,2005,86(4):259-263.

[5]王崇义.加强毕业论文指导,提升学生素质[J].外语教学,2004,25(6):73-76.

[6]陈,薛荣.英语专业本科毕业论文质量监控体系构建与实践[J].重庆科技学院学报,2008.05:204-205.

本科毕业论文英文篇(6)

中图分类号:G642 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1672-3791(2014)09(c)-0135-01

该文拟论述毕业论文培养应贯穿于整个本科阶段的课程教学,分析毕业论文培养与课程教学之间的关系,从英语本科毕业论文存在的问题来审视目前的英语本科教育,探索其对英语本科教育的指导性。

1 毕业论文培养环节与课程教学

教学计划上所谓毕业论文培养环节只是用来界定毕业前的最后学习阶段,而对学生的培养远不仅限于此阶段。《高等院校英语专业教学大纲》也指出:“毕业论文是考察学生综合能力,评估学业成绩的一个重要方式。”[2]由此可见,毕业论文的质量反映了本科阶段的教学质量。它表明了学生的外语水平和实际应用外语的能力,学生发现并提出问题、解决问题的能力以及独立从事科研工作的能力[1]。这些能力的培养都涉及到本科阶段的所有课程教学,远非短期的毕业论文写作指导所能及。另外,可以看出毕业论文是对本科教学质量的检测,而毕业论文存在的问题也集中体现了常规教学中的弊端。分析毕业论文存在的问题可以有效地指导常规课程教学,而课程教学质量的提高也必将体现到毕业论文质量上。

2 存在主要问题

通过对某高校2007、2008级英语本科毕业论文的综合分析,以及对这两界毕业生进行的问卷调查,发现毕业论文写作存在的问题集中体现在以下两个方面。

首先,英语语言能力较差,思路不清晰,语言缺乏逻辑性。学生英语行文能力差,语法错误多,文章可读性较低。写作目的不明确,陈述思路混乱,经常出现文不对题的情况。很多同学虽然用英文行文但是却用汉语思维组织语言,使行文前后不连贯缺乏逻辑性,且不注重段与段之间的粘连,整篇文章呈现出零散,脱节,中心不明确的状态。

其次,缺乏问题意识;论证过程缺乏理论支撑。学生缺乏问题意识,对所学的知识大多是被动的接受,很少对所学知识进行创造性思考;另外学生的知识积淀较少,无从发现问题。因此绝大部分学生的选题通过网上搜索,拼凑而来,这给论文写作带了极大的困难。再者,学生对相关理论知识被动接受,不能与实际相结合应用到论证过程中,这使得文章缺乏说服力,大多停留于感性层面的叙述。

根据以上两个方面问题,笔者将本科教育阶段的课程分为语言能力基础课程,高年级专业课程两类来探究毕业论文对课程教学的反拨效应。

3 对课程教学的反拨效应

3.1 语言能力基础课程

学生在毕业论文写作中表现出来的英语行文能力差不能简单地归咎于写作、语法或某一门课程。语言能力的听、说、读、写是一个有机整体,是相互依存,相互作用的。因此,英语语言能力低是所有听说读写的基础课程的问题。反思一下这些基础课程就不难找出其中原因。阅读课和听力课上教师注重传授解题技巧,如何在考试中得高分。通常课程内容是大量解题训练,而不注重学生对整篇文章的综合分析和理解。语法课大多是教师孜孜不倦地讲解语法点然后做大量的应试练习,脱离了作为载体的语言,学习语法的意义也仅仅是卷子上一个高低不同的分数而已。写作课亦是如此,固定的框架,模式,句型一切都服务于考试。综合英语本是一门将听说读写整合并形成语言自主输出的课程,但学生被要求背单词,背课文,大部分时间是被动地接受,很少有在真实的语言环境中进行自主语言输出的机会。不难看出,语言能力培养的基础课程的重心偏向于应试训练而忽略学生这个主体,久而久之,学生也习惯这样的被动接受。然而,要使教师所传授的这些语言规则支配的语言行为达到完全自由自主的程度,即内化为学生自己的语言能力,是需要大量的自主的语言输出练习才能转化为语言技能,才能帮助学生顺利地完成毕业论文写作。因此,要提高学生的语言能力,就要将语言能力基础课程的重心转向学生语言能力的培养,如何在大量的自主语言输出训练中将输入,分析,理解,归纳,总结,输出内化为学生自己的语言能力。

3.2 高年级专业课程

高级专业课程主要是指语言学、文学、翻译方向的相关课程,以及一些行业英语课程。这些课程是学生毕业论文题目的主要来源。然而,学生在毕业论文阶段却表现出缺乏问题意识,不能发现问题,更不用说解决问题。而论文选题的动因是在于发现问题,这样才能就题而论,有话可说。[3]这与基础课程养成的被动接受的习惯不无关系,更重要的是在教学中教师通常只激发学生的低级心里过程(lower mental process)。以文学课为例,老师讲授每个时期特点,文学贡献,某个作家的生平,著作,对文学理论进行介绍以及一些著名作品的分析,考试的内容也大致如此。学生只需要简单背诵,再现即可,背诵再现即是不需要思维的低级心里过程。而毕业论文写作恰恰需要调动学生的高级思维过程(higher mental process),需要学生有缜密的外语思维能力,批判的、系统的推理能力和跨文化沟通能力。[4]久而久之,学生自然很难通过自主思维发现问题,即缺乏问题意识。因此,对于选题往往采取“拿来主义”,以至于论文写作时无话可说,只能继续采取“拿来主义”。由此可见,高级专业课程应该思考如何调动学生的高级心里过程,提高学生的问题意识,学会如何发现问题,用缜密严谨的思维分析问题,解决问题。

4 结论

本科教育是一个系统工程,毕业论文项目和其它课程均为此系统的构成要素,它们不应是孤立存在而应是相互联系、相互作用。[5]同时,毕业论文对本科教育进行综合检测,对本科教育起到有益的指导作用,促使高校改进并提高教学质量,而教学质量的提高又反作用于毕业论文写作,从而从根本上提高毕业论文质量。

参考文献

[1] 教育部高等教育司.北京市教育委员会.高等学校毕业设计(论文)指导手册外语卷(修订版)[Z].北京:高等教育出版社 经济日报出版社,2007:1.

[2] 高等学校外语专业教学指导委员会英语组.高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲[Z].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000:5.

本科毕业论文英文篇(7)

毕业论文的质量是反映大学生学习效果与专业素质的一项重要指标。随着各个领域的国际交流与合作日益增多,我国对外科技交流日益频繁,论文尤其是论文摘要的撰写与翻译引起了人们高度重视,对论文摘要翻译的关注度也越来越高,同时“论文摘要的格式和结构都趋于格式化”。[1](P157)然而值得注意的是,由于种种原因,如相当一部分毕业生在撰写毕业论文时已不再系统英语学习,日常英语教学中教师缺乏这方面的指导和训练等,目前许多毕业论文英文摘要还存在某些缺陷与问题。

本文以非英语专业本科生毕业论文摘要的英译为研究对象,通过问卷调查、摘要译文搜集、文本细读,分析总结翻译中的常见错误,结合问卷结果,提出提高翻译水平的有益建议。

1 现状

在百度搜索引擎中输入“毕业论文摘要翻译”,可找到超过200万个结果,其中绝大多数或是论文摘要翻译求助或是提供论文摘要翻译服务的。这一现象说明尽管大学本科毕业生已经进行了至少十年的英语系统学习,但在具体应用尤其是论文摘要翻译上,仍然需要进一步的训练和指导。

笔者对天津城建大学150名非英语专业大三、大四的学生进行问卷调查,内容主要包括学生对未来毕业论文英文摘要翻译的预期等相关问题,同时涉及大学英语、专业英语课程的反馈。

从调查问卷中反馈的主要信息有:绝大多数学生(84.90%)会重视毕业论文摘要的英译,然而有超过六成(60.37%)的学生认为自己难以独立完成这项工作,因此大部分学生(75.74%)认为有必要专门针对毕业论文摘要的英译进行指导。在谈到具体面临的困难时,居前三位的分别是专业词汇量不够(84.90%)、缺乏翻译技巧(62.26%)、对科技英语特点了解不够(52.83%)。学生在翻译过程中所采取的翻译方法中,通过网络或翻译软件进行翻译的最多(75.46%)。尽管有近一半的学生(45.28%)认为个人利用各种词典进行翻译最为可靠,但只有两成左右(20.75%)会采用该种方法。

2 毕业论文摘要翻译中的主要问题

笔者搜集了近百份非英语专业本科生毕业论文摘要的英译,对其中存在的翻译问题进行归纳总结,主要问题与以下三个方面相关:

2.1 逐词翻译导致大量中式英语的存在

由于没有意识到英汉两种语言的基本差异,部分学生在翻译时基本采取逐词翻译的方式,甚至不考虑句子结构,将汉语的标点符号也原封不动地译到英语中来,造成大量不符合句法的“英文”句子,使读者很难理解要表达的内容。

例1:本文论述了我国村镇的基本概况和基本特点,研究了国内外物业管理的发展现状及村镇实施物业管理与构建和谐社区的关系。

译:This dissertation analyzes our country’s villages and small towns’ basic survey and the essential feature, and investigates the domestic and foreign estate management development present situation and the villages and small town’s estate management implementation and the construction harmonious community’s relations.

析:由于在翻译时没有考虑英语的句子结构,而是直接从汉语进行翻译,造成了诸多错误或者不当之处。原文中的“我国”在英语中直译成“our country”显然不妥;“构建和谐社区的关系”也直接按照汉语词汇的排列顺序译成“the construction harmonious community’s relations”,而没有考虑到短语中的动宾关系。

例2:但是市场比较法评估由于主观因素的不确定性的影响造成了它存在着不同的精确性问题。

译:But the market comparison test appraised because the subjective factor not definite influence created him to have the different accurate problem.

析:该句的翻译几乎没有一处是正确的,完全是逐字翻译,并且丝毫没有考虑到英文的语法和句法,句中多个词的词性也出现错误,可以说该句已经没有修改的意义,只有重新翻译。

2.2 对词语的确切含义与用法不清楚,导致用词错误

背单词是大多数学生在英语学习过程中花时间最多的一项工作,对于很多学生来说,复习准备英语考试就意味着背英文单词而已。然而尽管这样,只从毕业论文摘要的翻译来看,背单词却是一项收效却甚微的工作。主要原因之一是学生往往只注意到英文单词所对应的汉语意思,却没有注意到词汇的具体用法,没有将单词放到具体语境中,从而导致拼写以及词义较为接近的词的混淆。如architecture与building两个词,前者与“建筑学”有关,而后者是指“建筑物”,有些学生只了解两个词都是“建筑”的意思,因此在翻译中造成误用。另外,由于在背单词过程中过分关注其汉语词义,没有注意到词性,也导致在翻译过程中出现用词错误。

例1:(工业企业)技术创新

译:technique innovation

析:此处学生将technology与technique两个词混淆起来,没有弄清两个词的区别。technology指科学技术,而technique通常是指技巧或者某种手法。此处的“技术创新”显然是以科学发展为基础,而不在于提高技巧或手法。另外此处学生没有注意到应该用形容词,而不是名词。因此该短语应译为“technical innovation”。

例2:本文介绍了……

译:This paper introduction…

例3:经营战略

译:operating strategic

析:这两个翻译中都出现词性错误,名词“introduction”被误作动词使用,而形容词“strategic”被误作名词使用。

2.3 对英语句子的要求不明确导致大量不断句错误的出现

汉语的语法,有些地方是与英语相似的,但不同的地方更多。汉语并没有对句子结构或成分非常明确的规定,而英语对句子则有严格的规定。句子总的说来由两部分构成,即主语(subject)与谓语(predicate)。[2](P3)同时,英语句子以大写字母开头,以句号(问号、感叹号)结束。当学生受到汉语影响较深而没有严格按照英语句子的规范翻译时,很容易出现不断句的错误。

例:工程的生命在于质量,造成工程的质量问题有很多方面的因素,但它的核心是管理。

译:Quality is the life of architectural engineering, there are some factors in causing the poor quality of engineering, but wecan see the most importance is the management.

析:译文为了完全对照汉语原文的结构,用逗号连接“Quality is the life of architectural engineering”与“there are some factors in causing the poor quality of engineering”两部分。然而根据英语语法,两部分分别包括主语和谓语,是两个独立完整的句子,要以句号结束,不能用逗号连接,如果使用逗号的话则必须与连词共同使用。

3 提高学生毕业论文摘要翻译水平的几条对策

针对如上分析,笔者认为提高非英语专业本科生毕业论文摘要的翻译水平应注意以下几个方面。

3.1 强化大学英语课程的教学,适当调整教学内容

通过问卷调查可以看出,学生对英语学习的积极性很高,但对大学英语课的认可度较低,在受调查的学生中,有超过一半(50.94%)认为在大学英语课上的收获比较小,主要原因在于学生认为大学英语教学的实用性较差。因此,大学英语教师应在完成传统教学内容的基础上,学习了解一些学生相关专业词汇与习惯的表达,以适当方式渗透到教学中去,使学生对本专业知识的英语表达能力形成一定的基础。同时,教师可布置与学生水平相符的专业英语文章作为课后阅读作业,让学生提前接触相关领域的英语,通过阅读培养学生的语感,从而帮助他们提高汉英翻译水平。

3.2 专业英语课上加强英语语法的教学

“专业英语是大学英语教学的一个重要组成部分,是促进学生完成从学习过渡到实际应用的有效途径。”[3](P10)但与大学英语相比,学生专业英语课程的满意度略低一些,有54.71%的学生认为帮助不大。究其原因,一方面在于专业英语课时相对较少,另一方面也与课程的教学内容有关。

“专业英语语法和专业词汇是阅读和翻译的核心。”[4](P12)从目前情况来看,专业词汇的教与学得到了较高程度的重视,但语法教学显然受到了忽视,通常教师和学生认为英语语法已经在中学英语课和大学英语课上学习过,没有什么可再多讲、多学的,而且语法的教学枯燥无味。但根据笔者的教学经验和样本分析,因对英语(尤其是科技英语)的语法特点不了解而造成的翻译错误远多于因没有掌握专业词汇而犯的错误。

3.3 开设专门课程对学生进行辅导

在受调查学生中,有75.74%认为在大学英语和专业英语课之外,还需要对毕业论文摘要翻译进行专门指导。另外,虽然绝大多数学生认为专业词汇量不够是影响毕业论文摘要翻译的首要因素,但从实际翻译文本的分析来看,对汉英两种语言之间的差异的忽视以及对学术英语(尤其是科技英语)特点的不了解才是主要问题。据此,有必要开设类似《毕业论文摘要翻译》的选修课,消除学生针对毕业论文摘要翻译的误区,较为系统地讲授学术英语的特点与翻译。

【参考文献】

[1]张全,黄琼英.简明应用翻译教程[M].昆明:云南大学出版社,2010.

本科毕业论文英文篇(8)

一、 应用型本科英语专业的培养目标

在中华人民共和国教育部高教司2012年颁布的《普通高等学校本科专业目录和专业介绍》 有关英语专业建设的规范中提到英语专业的培养目标是:“培养具有扎实的英语语言基础和广博的文化知识并能熟练地运用英语在外事、教育、经贸、文化、科技、军事等部门从事翻译、教学、管理、研究等工作的复合型英语人才。”要求学生具备:“掌握运用专业知识发现、分析、解决问题的综合能力、创造性思维能力和科学研究能力”。在此基础上,应用型本科英语专业重点培养符合经济社会发展对英语专业人才需要的应用型人才,更加强调学生的实践活动,注重其应用能力的培养。

二、 翻译方向教学的特点

翻译是一种认知活动、一种技巧、一种艺术,是一种专业的交流工具。(仲伟合,穆雷)不同于一般英语专业,翻译方向教学具备以下几个特点:

1.重视实践教学。翻译本身就是一个实践过程,因此翻译方向的教学非常重视实践环节。开设的课程紧密围绕翻译理论与实践,结合各领域的专业知识,指导学生在实践中学习、摸索、体会翻译这个复杂的语言转换过程。翻译的技巧要在反复的实践中才能得以掌握。

2.培养双语运用能力。英语翻译涉及到英汉两种语言的应用与转换,不同于普通英语专业主要注重英语语言能力的培养,翻译方向兼顾培养学生中英双语的运用能力。翻译的艺术只有在具备熟练运用双语的条件下才能得以展现。

3.关注跨文化交际意识。翻译是一个跨越不同文化,连接不同文明的交流工具,这就需要学生在实践中提升跨文化交际意识,从文字中感受文化差异,并跨越语言和文化的障碍准确有效地传递信息。

三、 传统翻译类学术论文的普遍问题

从选题上来看,根据多位学者的调查统计,相较于文学或文化领域,英语专业的学生真正选择翻译理论研究方向的相对较少(张春芳,2009),这是因为翻译方向的参考资料相对来说专业度高,抽象难懂,有的研究涉及大量的数据收集和统计,这些都使学生望而却步。从形式上来看,英语专业传统的毕业论文要求学生用全英文进行撰写。这对于翻译这一强调双语运用能力的领域来说无异于“瘸腿跑”。这样的形式使学生在毕业环节中更多的重视了英文表达能力,却忽略了汉语表达能力的锻炼。从效果上来看,目前本科生的论文普遍存在论文东拼西凑,质量不佳,甚至在答辩时还不清楚基本概念,也讲不清所涉及的基本理论的现象。这就是因为学生在撰写论文过程中没有将理论与自己所经历的实践活动相结合,因此对于理论的理解也只停留在了表面文字上。基于以上传统毕业论文形式与应用型本科英语专业翻译方向培养目标间出现的落差,对于传统毕业论文进行改革让毕业论文形式多样化,就显得尤为重要。

四、 论文改革方式

毕业论文,是大学本科教学的最后一个环节,是对整个大学阶段学习的回顾与总结,是学生综合能力的体现。对于英语专业的学生来说,论文写作更是语言的一次综合性的训练,是学习深化与升华的重要过程。它既是学生学习、研究与实践的全面总结,又是对学生综合素质与实践能力的一次全面检验,翻译作为一个实践性很强的专业,毕业论文环节更应该将训练重点放在实践上,并且兼顾中英双语表达能力的训练。切实贯彻教育部高教司提出的“培养学生掌握运用专业知识发现、分析、解决问题的综合能力”这一要求。设计出适合应用型本科人才培养目标和符合学生实际特点的毕业综合训练模式。

参考MTI(英语专业硕士)的毕业环节设计,学生可以采取参与翻译实践并撰写翻译实践报告的方式完成毕业论文。学生在导师指导下选择从未有过译本的中外原文本进行翻译。出于对于学生双语能力训练的考虑,原则上要求学生选择与翻译译文相反的语言进行实践报告的撰写。如:

进行汉译英原文字数不少于5000字汉语的翻译实践,并写出不少于3000字的汉语实践报告;或英译汉原文字数不少于3500英文单词的翻译实践,并写出不少于2000英文单词的实践报告。

所有翻译活动不拘泥于第四年完成,可累计完成。

基本步骤为:

1.学生自主联系客户或寻找符合要求的题材确定翻译内容。通过此环节可以让学生直接与翻译市场接轨,了解行业需求,建立翻译职业服务意识。

2.根据工作量组队或独自在指导教师的指导下完成翻译任务。在应用型本科培养方案中,学生是教学和实践的主体,在此实践活动中充分调动学生的参与积极性,培养其分工合作意识,以及独立思考、分析问题、解决问题的能力。在此过程中教师指导学生如何查阅资料、借助各种翻译辅助工具进行翻译,起到监督、启示、引导的作用。

3.组织校审并在规定时间内提交译文。经过多轮校审学生要严格按照委托方的要求提交译文。

4.对翻译过程中遇到的典型案例进行分类整理。学生完成翻译任务之后要对所经过的整个翻译环节进行系统的回顾,找出其中具有典型意义的案例进行分类总结。不同于学术类传统论文,要求学生从自己的实践作品出发,用自己的实践成果作为素材完成报告。这可以使学生更加细致地思考和整理翻译流程中的具体环节,用审视的角度看待自己的翻译作品。

5.根据所学相关翻译理论知识与技巧对案例进行细致分析。注重引导学生理论与实践相结合,运用理论解决实际工作中遇到的问题。也可以使学生可以对课本上的理论知识有更深层次的理解。

6.提出解决问题的方法和策略。从实践中来再回到实践中去,学生通过对实践活动的总结和思考,提出自己对特定问题的观点,以及针对翻译过程中遇到的问题和困难找出有效的解决方法和应对策略,真正做的有所感悟、有所收获。

论文评价方式为:

翻译实践报告从选题、工作量、结构、案例分析、语言和译文质量等几个方面进行综合考核。翻译部分评分可以参照英语专业八级考试的评分标准,从忠实度和通顺度两方面对学生的翻译作品进行评价。

五、 总结

根据应用型本科的培养目标和翻译方向的教学特点,提出英语专业翻译方向毕业论文改革的方式,即学生参与翻译实践并撰写翻译实践报告的形式,译文语言和实践报告语言兼顾中英双语。使学生在参与完整翻译环节后,对整个实践过程进行反思,充分运用其所学翻译理论技巧、训练双语表达能力、案例综合分析能力和实际解决问题的能力。从而真正实现培养应用型人才的目标。

参考文献:

[1]中华人民共和国教育部高等教育司.《普通高等学校本科专业目录和专业介绍》[M] 北京:高等教育出版社.2012.

[2]贾军红.英语专业本科毕业论文工作改革方案探索[J].宜宾学院学报.2013.

[3]李淑敏,闵悦.应用型本科教学体系初探[J].大家.2011.

[4]穆雷,邹兵等.翻译硕士专业学位论文参考模板探讨[J].学位与研究生教育.2012.

本科毕业论文英文篇(9)

中图分类号:G642.0 文献标志码:A 文章编号:1674-9324(2015)45-0060-02

高等学校本科毕业论文(设计)的写作是大学本科教育的必要环节。《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》指出,“毕业论文是考察学生综合能力、评估学业成绩的一个重要方式”(张纪英,2006)。本文以新疆塔里木大学为例,对英语专业本科生毕业论文质量现状进行调查研究。

一、研究对象

本文选取新疆塔里木大学英语专业四年级民汉族学生共134人,其中民族学生70人,汉族学生64人为调查对象。同时选取10名毕业论文指导教师进行访谈。

二、研究方法

1.资料法:对随机抽取的50名学生的毕业论文进行分析,其中民汉学生各25名。分析的内容涉及论文写作结构;写作技巧;文献资料的编写与引用等。除此之外,为了把握学生的毕业论文选题动态,本研究搜集并整理168篇论文题目。

2.问卷调查法:问卷涉及四部分内容,包括有关英语专业毕业论文写作的要求和课程安排;学生毕业论文撰写过程;有关学生对其毕业论文写作的反馈与评价。问卷发放134份,收回130份,回收率为97%。

3.访谈法:访谈内容主要包括所在学校对英语专业学生的毕业论文有无具体规定;学生的毕业论文是否符合高等教育英语专业教学大纲的相关要求与规定;英语专业毕业论文存在的问题、原因以及解决这些的问题的建议等,并对整个访谈整个过程进行笔录。

三、结果与分析

1.英语专业毕业论文写作现状。①毕业论文结构松散且不完整,通过对所搜集的50名学生的论文分析发现:尽管所收集到的论文都包含开头、主体与结尾,但论文的结构仍显松散且不完整。首先,就论文结构的完整性而言。塔里木大学英语专业大多数毕业生的论文缺少文献综述与研究方法的陈述,除前言和结论之外,大多数论文仅有两部分内容,其中民族学生毕业论文所占比例为98%,汉族学生毕业论文占80%以上。其次,论文结构显松散。在对50名毕业生论文的分析中发现,有18名汉族学生、22名民族学生,即分别为72%的汉族毕业生的论文和88%的民族毕业生的论文缺乏严密的逻辑论证与具有说服力的观点。②论文选题分布不均衡,本研究搜集并整理塔里木大学两届毕业生168篇论文题目,研究发现:尽管英语专业学生有以上五个研究领域可供选择,但学生的选题较为集中,选题分布在每一个研究领域显得很不均衡。比如民族学生论文选题较多集中在语言和应用研究方面,分别占比例为33.7%和45.7%。其次分别是翻译、国际与文学研究,其中文学领域的选题最少,仅占2.2%;汉族学生论文选题多集中于应用研究,占44.7%。其次是国际与文学研究领域,分别18.4%与18.4%,比例相当。最后是语言与翻译研究,尤其是翻译研究最少,仅占5.2%。③写作文体不正式,首先,民汉学生的毕业论文中口语化措辞、表达以及省略形式的使用比较普遍。例如:“Discourse analysis has a lot of methods.”。而且,通过对50名民汉民汉毕业生论文的分析发现,主观性表述与非正式表达较为普遍,例如,“The author calculated and analyzed the data from 40 English major students...”,“下面我把文章的写作思路简单陈述一下.....”等。除此之外,论文中出现歧视色彩的语言,尤其是性别歧视。例如,“As a student learns to read more critically,he usually...”,④忽视写作方法和技巧,研究发现,三分之一的学生不遵循大小写规范。如“Brief analysis on Gatsby’s idealism in The Great Gatsby”,“The Functions of brand names”等。其次是斜体的使用。研究发现,汉族学生经常在斜体使用上犯错误,比如一些学生的毕业论文在直接引用原著的某些内容时不使其斜体。而且,在提到书名、期刊名、剧本名等,汉族学生不会对其斜体或下划线,一些学生甚或直接用书名号代替,比如“in the drama《Hamlet》”。与此同时,论文中存在诸多语法和拼写错误,比如汉族学生经常会把“born”写成“borne”,“knowledgeable”写成“knowledgable”,“由于缺少真时的语言环境”等。语法错误的例子更不计其数,如“BY comparing the difference of the table etiquette between China ans Japan,to realized the difference of diet concept,diet culture,and from this to discover...”;“本文主要通过少数民族大学生英语听力现状,调查了造成这种现状的原因,主要从学生的角度提出了一些对策,旨在帮助这些学生消除听力障碍,提高听力水平”等。⑤文献资料的编写与引用不正确,毕业论文在引用和编写文献资料仍存在以下几个方面的问题。其一,一些学生在列举附加的参考文献很随意。按照论文写作规定,“如果参考文献中包括英语与汉语两种,则应将英文作者和中文作者分开排列。一般将英文作者(也可将中文作者)排在前面,并按其姓氏的字母顺序排列;中文作者按姓氏的汉语拼音字母顺序排列”(张纪英,2006)。其二,参考文献中出现拼写错误,比如作者姓名、期刊或书籍的名称。譬如Scollon,R&L.Philip. Multimodal Discourse Analysis as the Confluence of Discourse and Techology[M]. Washington,DC,Georgetown University Press,2004.其三,一些学生文内引用文献时不标注出处。其四,还有一些学生在参考文献编写时不注意标点符号的使用,常出现中文输入法状态的“,”与“。”等。

2.毕业论文写作质量影响因素。①论文写作指导与监督不力,据调查,论文写作指导课程把论文写作范式、结构与选题作为指导的重点,在论文的语言、具体的论文范文的讲解与文献资料的编写方面给予的关注较少。同时,据了解,大多数学生把希望寄托于指导老师,然而由于指导老师数量有限,教学任务繁重,因此对论文写作进行系统的指导与监督无法得到保证。②可供参考的文献资料有限,网络、图书馆与数据库成为民汉学生论文写作资料的主要来源,其中占民族学生人数比例分别为34%、28%与25%;占汉族学生人数比例分别为34.4%、26.8%与24.1%。除此之外,民汉学生中分别有1.5%的民族学生与2.6%的汉族学生自己购买可供参考书籍。少量学生选择向指导老师与同学借阅资料,其中民族学生所占比例分别为3%与2.5%;汉族学生占比例分别为1.6%与1.6%。③学生英语水平有限、且写作态度消极,据调查,约33.3%的民汉学生认为毕业论文对检测四年大学学习质量有重要作用,51.6%的学生认为毕业论文是反映其专业学习整体水平的重要方式。12.9%的学生认为撰写毕业论文很有必要,2.2%的学生认为没有必要撰写毕业论文。整体而言,学生对撰写毕业论文的重要性的认识还不够,约六分之一,即17.7%的学生对毕业论文写作持有消极态度。④写作策略运用不恰当,据调查,民族学生中31.4%的学生是认真且独立撰写并完成论文写作;48.5%的学生借用网络或数据库的相关内容并进行相应的改述;2%的学生选择网上复制相关内容并粘贴在一起形成自己的毕业论文;汉族学生中56.2%的学生通过翻译、总结等方式改述相关文献资料撰写论文;40.6%的学生认真且独立撰写并完成论文写作;3%的学生从网上复制并粘贴形成毕业论文;其中民汉学生中均无找人。⑤论文写作投入精力不够、文字编辑能力不够熟练,毕业论文写作一般安排在大四的最后一学期,这也正是学生忙于找工作或准备研究生考试的阶段。调查显示,民汉学生中分别有约48.6%的学生与50%的学生把毕业论文写不好归结于时间和精力不足。除此之外,据调查,31.5&的学生认为他们不熟悉文字处理软件,从而给他们在论文的编辑的上带来了很多困难,诸如论文分页、目录编辑、全角输入和半角输入转化不熟练导致的标点符号错误等。

通过分析民汉学生的毕业论文发现,民汉学生毕业论文存在很多方面的问题。这个意义重大的教学环节却并没有受到普遍的重视,没能朝着不断进取,不断创新、不断发展的目标迈进,相反却是步履蹒跚,现状堪忧,毕业论文整体质量在走下坡路。因此,提高我校英语专业本科生毕业论文质量成为亟待解决的主要问题。

本科毕业论文英文篇(10)

1.2 The current situation in oral English learning of non-English major students 1

1.3 Overview of the development of web-based study at home 2

1.4 The significance of the study 2

2. Literature Review 4

2.1 Definition of learning strategies 4

2.2 Classification of learning strategies 5

2.3 Studies on speaking learning strategies 6

2.4 Factors of influencing the choice of speaking learning strategies 8

3. The methodology 10

3.1 The subjects 10

3.2 Instruments 10

3.3 Data collection 11

3.4 Data analysis 11

4. Results and discussion 16

4.1 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies 16

4.2 Frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies. 16

4.3 Differences in the use of speaking learning strategies by speakers with different factors 17

5. Conclusion 19

Acknowledgements 20

References 21

Appendices 23

 

1. Introduction

In this part, four sections are included. There are background of this study, the current situation in oral English learning of non-English major students, overview of the Internet development in China and the significance of the study.

1.1 Background of this study

With the fast development of society and the increasing openness to the world, the demands to communicate in English have been expanded to a large degree. College students are required to have a good competence in speaking before entering the society. But the fact is that the actual competence of college students in speaking is far from being satisfactory. It is necessary for us to improve the awareness of using strategies.

In the field of language learning and teaching over the last few decades, a prominent shift has taken place, resulting in great emphasis on learners and learning rather than teachers and teaching. The study of learning strategies has seen an “explosion of activity”. [1]105 In recent years although the history of research into speaking learning strategies is not very long, the study on speaking learning strategies can provide students with valuable suggestions on how to improve oral English in terms of accuracy, fluency, and complexity. Almost 15 researchers abroad have studied on speaking learning strategies. In China, Huang Xiaohua and Chen Sijin have done a great contribution to studies on speaking leaning strategies.

Nowadays, the development of computer science and technology and the prevalence of networks have deeply influenced people’s life, also the language study. However, there are still few researches on the web-based speaking learning strategies. The thesis attempts to make a study on web-based speaking learning strategies.

1.2 The current situation in oral English learning of non-English major students

In China, the teaching of English as a foreign language has been greatly influenced by the traditional education system. The traditional way still pay much attention to the examinations in schools, including colleges and universities either, rather than the application of language. Linguistic form is always the focus of both textbooks and language tests. Besides, under this model, one teacher is always in charge of many students in one class, so the teacher becomes the center of the class and there is little chance for the students to practice oral English. The English language learning is seen as a “knowledge-imparting” process and the English language learning is seen as a “knowledge-receiving’ process. Therefore, there is a misleading that English learners are regarded as passive recipients and do not need any initiative.

According to the investigation by Shi in 2000, college graduates who have strong speaking ability only account for 5%; those who are very weak in speaking account for 37%; those who are competent in international conference discussions account for 7% and those who are competent in foreign trade negotiations account for 14%. In spite of the fact that college students have a long history of learning English, the critical situation still not shift and the ability for the college students to speak English is far from satisfactory.

1.3 Overview of the development of web-based study at home

With the rapid development of computer science and technology and the prevalence of networks, people’s life has been influenced. According to “Survey Report on Internet Development in China” provided by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in January 2007, study is the fourth main goal following getting entertained, making friends and getting resources. In English Learning Teaching, Multi-media Means have been also applied. No one can ignore the great influence of the Internet on people’s daily life, including English study. A lot of people have made full use of the Internet for English study, such as reading or listening global news, watching America or Europe movies or TV series, taking part in chatting rooms for English study, making frien ds from other countries online, etc.

Web-based study can make learning anytime, anywhere available, thereby providing the possibility for lifelong learning. It also changes the relationship between teachers and students and provides increased access to study. Besides, web-based study is a good way to improve the student's critical thinking and analytical skills. [2]245

1.4 The significance of the study 

With the development of global integration and the increased frequency of international communication, new and higher requirements in English study are put forward for college students. Gradually, more and more non-English major students realize the importance of oral English study and try to find out ways to improve their own oral English to a higher level. However, due to the influence of traditional teaching methods, long-time examination-oriented concept and ignorance to oral English in people’s mind, the current situation of college students, especially non-English major students, in oral English is far from being optimistic. From 1960s, language researchers home and abroad have focused on the relationship between oral English study and learning strategies and made deep study on speaking learning strategies.

What’s more, the Internet and computer science has played a more and more important role in people’s life and influenced language learning further. It is evidently an admirable thing, but there is little guidance to the English study online. The study on web-based learning strategies is few, even the study on web-based speaking learning strategies is almost blank. Therefore, this paper chooses a certain amount of non-English major students in ZUST, and studies their present situation or problems during using speaking learning strategies online, hoping to help them to find a suitable way to study online and finally achieve the ultimate goal of improving oral English.

 

2. Literature Review

In this part, four topics are discussed respectively. They are: definition of learning strategies, classification of learning strategies, studies on speaking learning strategies, factors of influencing the choice of speaking learning strategies.

2.1 Definition of learning strategies

In most of the studies, speaking learning strategies are not separated from learning strategies. The general definition of learning strategies is “mental or behavior activity related to some specific stage in the overall process of language acquisition or language use.” [3]154 In the short history of researches on learning strategies, lots of researches abroad gave definition of learning strategies from perspective of their study. Here are some.

Weinstein and Mayer insist that learning strategies are the behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning. Learning strategies are intended to influence the learner’s encoding process. 54 The researchers above all think learning strategies are actions useful to language learning but differ in the way learning strategies work.

In 1990, Cohen defines learning strategies as learning processes which are consciously selected by the learners. The element of choice is important here because this is what gives a strategy its special character. These are also moves which the learners are at least partially aware of, even if full attention is not being given to them. 78

In addition, Tarone defines language strategies as “an attempt to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in target language –to incorporate these into one’s interlanguage competence.” [11]65-66 Stern gives the definition as “best reserved for general tendencies or overall characteristic of the approach employed by the language learner, leaving techniques as the term to refer to particular forms of observable learning behavior.& rdquo; [12]57-58

2.2 Classification of learning strategies

2.2.1 Classification of learning strategies abroad

Learning strategies have been classified by many scholars. However, most of these studies do not differ much with each other. Here are three typical classifications:

In the classification of O’Malley and Chamots, there are 3 major types of strategies, namely, cognitive strategies, meta-cognitive strategies and social/affective strategies. [13]155 O’Malley and Chamot make the classification depending on the level or type of processing involved. The disadvantage of O’Malley and Chamot’s classification is that it has difficulties in its application because the definition of each strategies item seems to be a little vague.

The classification scheme provided by Oxford is believed to be the most comprehensive classification to date. Oxford divided language strategies into two major groups, namely, direct strategies and indirect strategies. [14]54-55

1) Direct strategies: Memory strategies, Cognitive strategies, Compensation strategies.

2) Indirect strategies: Meta-cognitive strategies, Social strategies, Affective strategies.

The classification by Oxford has been widely used and accepted.

Cohen, in his work Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language divided learners’ strategies into two types: language learning strategies and language using strategies. [15]124 Cohen’s classification seems clear and easy to understand, but it is difficult to tell whether it is for language learning or for language use. Besides, his study did not pay attention to meta-cognitive strategies, while many researchers believe that meta-cognitive strategies are one of the most important strategies to language learning.

2.2.2 Classification of learning strategies in China

As we know, in most of the studies, speaking learning strategies are not separated from learning strategies. In China, many researchers have made great contribution to learning strategies. In order to have a good understanding of learning strategies, many researchers focus on the classification of learning strategies. Cheng& Zhen and Wen are two prominent researchers.

Cheng& Zhen put forward two classification schemes. The first one is based on the role that strategies play in the learning process. There are cognitive strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, affective strategies and communicative strategies. The second one is based on areas of language knowledge and skills. There are strategies for learning pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and strategies for developing listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. [16]56

Wen draws a complete system for language learning strategies. In this system, language learning strategies are divided into two categories: the beliefs about language learning and the learning strategies. The former concerns a learner’s viewpoint about how to learn a foreign language, and these beliefs decide the learning strategies one uses. The latter is subdivided into two groups: management skills and learning skills. Management skills are usually related to the language materials, including making study plans, evaluating one’s progress, measuring and modulating one’s affective state and so on; while learning skills generally include how to acquire the abilities in listening, speaking, reading and writing, how to deal with new words, how to learn pronunciation and so on. [17]54

2.3 Studies on speaking learning strategies

2.3.1 Nature of oral English

Oral English is different from written English in many ways. Oral English is usually not pre-organized and neat as written English. The sentence in oral English is usually shorter, even not completed or simpler, sometimes wrong in grammar.  Also, we can find that oral English is always much up-dated and could express speaker’s ideals by tones of voice, intonation and stress.

The words are being spoken as they are being decided and as they are being understood. Once spoken, they are gone. While the reader can reread, the listener can have memory problems that will lead to misunderstandings or a request for a repetition. Furthermore, the listener may miss a part of what was said, perhaps through noise, or a moment’s distraction. [18]85

2.3.2 Studies on speaking learning strategies abroad

With the further study of learning strategies, some researchers have made detailed study on speaking learning strategies. Speaking strategies, which are closely related to strategies as in McDonugh’s review, turned out to be a focus among researchers of SLA. L2 researchers on speaking strategies were always divided into two camps:    

1) Socio-linguistically orientated researchers, such as Tarone, who considered such strategies as social interaction.

2) Psycho-linguistically orientated researchers, represented by Faerch and Kasper, who recognized them as part of a planning process.

Through employing the me thodology of interpreting transcripts of learners’ language,the two camps set a destination of ascertaining various lists of possible strategies available to L2 learners, which were separately described by Poulisse and Bialystok. [19]78-79

The most comprehensive project into speaking strategies was conducted at the University of Nijmegen by Kellerman, Bongaerts, and Poulisse in the 1980s. In these studies by the Nijmegen group, verbal report and other methods were used for investigating the situation of the use of L2 speaking strategies, especially those used in compensating for gaps in communicative ability.

O’Malley and Chamot conducted an empirical interventionist study, which “is one of the most comprehensive studies of learner strategies to date”. [20]65 After the test, the members who were given precise and clear training in meta-cognitive,cognitive,and social strategies and affective strategies improved significantly more than the controlled group.

Cohen, Weaver and Li investigated the effects of a range of speaking strategies on three tasks performed by university foreign language students: a self-description, a story retelling, and a description of a favorite city at University of Minnesota. In 2000, there are also three major studies reviewed by Cohen, which dealt with training of speaking strategies, founded on the categorization of speaking strategies. One study was conducted with a survey of 122 first-year and fourth-year students in the English Department at an Egyptian university,half students receiving the treatment and half in the controlled group. A second study involved 60 undergraduates in compulsory English for Arts Student course. 75

2.3.3 Studies on speaking learning strategies at home

From the early 1980s, researchers in China began to pay more and more attention to speaking learning strategies. A thesis named “An investigation of learning strategies in colloquial communication that Chinese EFL learners in China employ” was accomplished by Huang Xiaohua in 1984. In 1985, Huang Xiaohua took a further research on relationship between speaking strategies and speaking proficiency among seniors of English major in Guangzhou Foreign Language Institute. They found that the use of learning strategies was relative to increased language achievement or proficiency and learning strategies had been firmly affirmed to play an active role in language learning. [23]287-307

In 1990, Chen Siqing Published “A study of communication strategies in interlanguage production by Chinese EFL learners” in an international magazine—Language Learning. In the study, the frequency, type and efficiency of using communication strategies by twelve students of foreign language majors were observed and described. [24]24-26

2.3.4 Factors of influencing the choice of speaking learning strategies

During the recent studies on learning strategies, many researchers have found that the use of speaking learning strategies is affected by many factors. And the most common factors are age, language proficiency, learning style, learning beliefs, gender, motivation and culture.

1) Age has been found to affect the use of oral English strategies. Older learners often use complex, sophisticated strategies. Young children respond more readily and intuitively to language “acquisition” in social and communicative situations, while older learners can learn language more steadily by means of cognitive and academic approaches. [25]154

2) L2 proficiency Bialystock found that functional practice correlated significantly with second language proficiency in tenth graders, whereas functional practice, formal practice, and monitoring were related to L2 proficiency in twelfth graders. [26]25

3) Learning styles also affect the choice of L2 learning strategies. Learning styles make a big difference in choosing learning strategies or the learning behavior of an individual.

4) Learning beliefs, as researchers, Weden, Horwitz; Abranham and Vann; Gerardo; Pedro; Yang, suggested, play an important role in dictating the use of learning strategies.

5) Gender differences in the use of learning strategies are indicated by several studies of Oxford and Nyikos, Oxford and Green, Kaylani e.

6) Motivation is also important in successful second language learning. Gardner, D. & L. Miller are typical researchers. Schumann, Oxford and Nyikos, Ehrman and Oxford, Okada also concern much about motivation and learning strategies.

7) Culture may play an important role in shaping particular learning behaviors, as some researchers indicated. Researchers such as O’Malley, Politzer and McGroa try, Scarcella, Carson, Hino, Kohn, Carson and Nelson, Levine, Reves and Leaver and Parry make researches on it. [27]85

 

3. The methodology

The study was conducted to investigate the current situation of speaking learning strategies used by students from non-English majors who have oral English study online by means of questionnaire survey. The whole chapter is composed of the following components: the subjects, the instruments, data collection, data analysis.

3.1 The subjects

3.1.1 Purpose

The major purposes of the study are: 1) to study the frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies during oral English study online; 2) to find out the differences in the frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies; 3) to identify the differences in the use of speaking learning strategies by speakers with different factors including gender, major, personality, self-rated proficiency level; 4) to point out that the positive use of speaking learning strategies online is helpful to the improvement of oral English.

3.1.2 Participants

The participants are 107 college students of non-English major in ZUST. They are from different majors and are respectively from science and arts. And also, they are from different grades of different levels.

3.2 Instruments

The questionnaire has been used to gather information on the speaking learning strategies used by students of non-English major who have oral English study online. The students are required to finish the questionnaire in 10 minutes. The questionnaire contains 30 questions, concluding 6 questions about meta-cognitive strategies, 4 questions about cognitive strategies, 6 questions about memory strategies, 4 questions about compensation strategies, 5 questions about affective strategies, and 5 questions about social strategies. It uses five scales ranging from A (“never”) to E (“always”). The latter letter indicates a more frequent use of the Internet or strategies. The first part of the survey questionnaire is for the status of using the Internet for oral English study in ZUST. The second part focuses on the use of six types of strategies. The detailed reflection of different speaking learning strategies used in oral English study online can be represented as below: 1) memory strategies, such as setting up nets of relationships, making use of image and sound, reviewing, acting and so on; 2) cognitive strategies, such as practicing, receiving, and conveying information, analyzing and inferring, setting up rules for inputting and output information; 3) compensation strategies, such as guessing, overcoming deficiencies of language knowledge in speaking and writing; 4) meta-cognitive strategies, such as focusing on key points of learning, arranging and planning learning, evaluating learning; 5) affective strategies, such as lowering anxiety, encouraging oneself, learning about one’s own state of affect; 6) social strategies, such as enquiring about questions, cooperating with others, sympathizing others. The questionnaire is in Chinese, in order to make the participants understand the items better.

3.3 Data collection

The students majoring in science, especially the students majoring in engineering and students majoring in arts of business trade and humanity in ZUST, take part in this survey. The survey conducted during a week in April in 2010. There are different methods or procedures to collect the data in the researches of speaking learning strategies, such as observation, interview, questionnaire, verbal report, diary, etc. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages as well. But considering time-saving principal and the conception of building an environmental society, this survey is made online. During this period, we contact 3 students majoring in engineering in ZUST and then other students to take part in the survey. The students are required to answer the questionnaire in 10 minutes. The participants are advised not to be so bad in English to guarantee the quality of the survey. Then the data will undergo descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics indicate the average level of the use of speaking learning strategies, the difference between two sets of scores, such as the relationship between some learners’ factors and the use of speaking learning strategies, such as gender, major, personality, self-rated proficiency, and the possibility and reliability of the data.

3.4 Data analysis

This paper analyzes the data collected in the research. Section one indicates the frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies during oral English study online. Section two shows the differences in the frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies. Section three provides the differences in the use of speaking learning strategies by speakers with different factors including gender, major, personality, self-rated proficiency level. For the convenience of calculating, A (“never&rd quo;) to E (“always”) in the questionnaire count 1-5 scores gradually. And all use mean and Std. Deviation to make a contrast between each other and check the possibility of the results.

3.4.1 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies

Table 3.1 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies online and in real life

Category Online In real life

Overall strategies  2.50 4.02

Memory strategies 2.30 4.33

Cognitive strategies 2.57 3.04

Compensation strategies 2. 82 4.83

Meta-cognitive strategies 2. 53 3.12

Affective strategies 2.19 3.03

Social strategies 2.24 4.08

The table 3.1 above shows the mean scores of the use of speaking learning strategies online and in the real life respectively. It is clearly that the frequency of the overall use of speaking learning online only accounts 2.50, greatly lower than that in the real life, which holds 4.02. Besides, the respective scores of the use of different speaking learning strategies are relatively lower than that in the real life.

3.4.2 Frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies

Table 3.2 Frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies

Category Mean Std. Deviation

Memory strategies 2.30 2.29

Cognitive strategies 2.57 3.33

Compensation strategies 2. 82 4.91

Meta-cognitive strategies 2. 53 5.18

Affective strategies 2.19 3.43

Social strategies 2.24 3.07

The table 3.2 above shows the mean scores and std. deviation of the use of different speaking learning strategies online. As the survey shows, the most frequent speaking learning strategies used by students are compensation strategies, which accounts for 2.82. The latter two are cognitive strategies and meta-cognitive strategies, which accounts for 2.57 and 2.53 respectively. Affective strategies only have 2.19, which are comparatively low to the overall level.

3.4.3 Differences in the use of speaking learning strategies by speakers with different factors

3.4.3.1 Use of the speaking strategies by different gender

Table 3.3 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies by different gender

Category Male Female

Overall strategies  2.33 2.67

Memory strategies 2.28 2.32

Cognitive strategies 2.53 2.61

Compensation strategies 2.51 2.55

Meta-cognitive strategies 2.49 2.57

Affective strategies 2.18 2.20

Social strategies 2.21 2.27

From table 3.3, we can see that there is no big significant difference in using memory strategies, cognitive strategies, compensation strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, affective strategies and social strategies between different genders. The overall strategies used by females hold 2.67, higher than 2.33 for males. The use of learning strategies by females is more frequent than the males. Also, the scores of respective speaking learning strategies by the females are always higher than the males.

3.4.3.2 Use of the speaking strategies by different majors

Table 3.4 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies by different major

Category Science Arts

Overall strategies  2.36 2.64

Memory strategies 2.25 2.35

Cognitive strategies 2.51 2.63

Compensation strategies  2.59  2.47

Meta-cognitive strategies 2.31 2.33

Affective strategies 2.15 2.23

Social strategies 2.19 2.29

From table 3.4, the overall use of speaking learning strategies by students from arts occupies 2.64, while the use of those from science occupies 2.36. The students from arts use speaking learning strategies a little more frequent than those of the science. Also, this contrast between males and females can be seen by the scores of each speaking learning strategies in the table3.4.

3.4.3.3 Use of the speaking strategies by different personalities

Table 3.5 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies by different personality

Category Extroverted Introverted

Overall strategies  2.50 2.42

Memory strategies 2.27 2.33

Cognitive strategies 2.58 2.56

Compensation strategies 2.56 2.50

Meta-cognitive strategies 2.28 2.34

Affective strategies 2.19 2.17

Social strategies 2.26 2.21

From table 3.5, the scores of the extroverted students and the introverted students are near the same. And it is not fixed that the scores of the extroverted ones are higher than the introverted ones by each strategies. The score of memory strategies by the introverted occupies 2.33, 0.05 higher than the extroverted. Also, we can see that the score of the meta-cognitive strategies by the introverted is 0.06 higher. There is no big difference in the use of the speaking strategies with different personality, but normally the speaking learning strategies used by the outgoing and confident students are more frequent, especially social strategies, affective strategies and compensation strategies.

3.4.3.4 The use of the speaking strategies by different self-rated proficiency levels

Table 3.6 Frequency of the use of speaking Learning

 strategies by different self-rated proficiency level

Category High Medium Low

Overall strategies  2.53 1.61 0.89

Memory strategies 1.84 1.71 1.12

Cognitive strategies 2.19 1.97 0.98

Compe nsation strategies 1.51 1.57 1.90

Meta-cognitive strategies 2.57 1.63 0.83

Affective strategies 2.83 1.88 0.67

Social strategies 2.11 1.54 0.83

In this part, students are divided into three groups by self-rated proficiency level, namely, high, medium and low. Table 3.6 clearly shows that the strategies used by the participants are significantly and positively related to their proficiency level. The good students with higher-rated proficiency level use more speaking learning strategies and relatively the students with low-rated proficiency level use less speaking learning strategies. In addition, the compensation is often used by the ones who are relatively weak in English, which occupy 1.9 point in the table 3.6.

 

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Frequency of the use of speaking learning strategies

As the survey shows, the overall use of speaking learning strategies online is still low. The possible reason should be:

First, the college students have not thought high of or even realized the great potential and function of the net to learning. Although the Internet can capture students’ attention easily, it is not often used for study. Students are used to and willing to study in class or by textbooks or homework.

Second, even though a part of students realized the value of Internet to study, they do not know how to study. The further negative effect is that they lose the interest in oral English practicing easily. This may need the teachers to guide them and enlighten their mind with fleshing ideas, innovation and updated rich information about the ways to practice oral English on the Internet.

Third, there is no admirable and pleasant atmosphere for web-based study. As nearly all the students live in the dormitory, they are easily affected by each other. So, an environment full of interaction is advocated. The teachers or the students themselves could build some forums, unions or study groups to arise the atmosphere of study.

The last but not the least, the Internet has so much temptation to allure the students to have some entertainment. So, the Internet itself may reduce the speaking learning use. Students are always weak in self-motivated learning ability and ability to study independently online. As to this, the students themselves should pay more efforts on it.

4.2 Frequency of the use of different speaking learning strategies.

From the data we can see that the most frequent speaking learning strategy used by students online is the compensation strategies. This may be the reason that the average oral English level of non-English major students is not high and a big amount of them is low. When they could not understand what the other talks about during the conversation, they will ask them to repeat or slow down the speed. Since the storage of their vocabulary is limited, when they could not remind of the words or sentences needed, they will choose other words or sentences to replace these words or sentences. And when they could not express themselves clearly, they will try to give examples to elaborate it.

The lower ones to compensation strategies in the survey are cognitive strategies and meta-cognitive strategies. It is gratified that students have an identifying goal of study in English learning and they also take advantage of the Internet resources under a pleasant condition by watching America movie or TV series or listening VOA, BBC, etc. They also try to seek the better way to improve oral English and have the ability to make arrangements.

Affective strategies, memory strategies and social strategies are comparatively lower in the data. Students are easy to be depressed about their oral English and sometimes have the thought to let it be. When confronted with new words on movies, TV series, websites, chatting online, etc, students will not write them down or try to find their meanings. Social strategies could contribute much but are limited by the traditional study habits online. Students have not formed the habits to practice English by e-mails, chatting rooms or other methods online.

4.3 Differences in the use of speaking learning strategies by speakers with different factors

As we can see from the use of the speaking strategies by different genders, majors, personality, and self-rated proficiency level above, English learning factors do affect the oral learning inline.

As to the gender, females pay more attention to the use of speaking learning strategies and have more talents in language learning. Female students are not engaged in many entertainments such as games, etc. But both males and females should make best use of the advantages and bypass the disadvantages

As to the major, the scores of the students majoring in arts are conspicuously superior to the students majoring in science. The thinking pattern and the advantage of sharing emotion and social practice of the students majoring in art makes them superior in the use of speaking learning strategies, while the students majoring in science pay much on the technologies and data than language itself.

As to personality, the extroverted ones gain much. The extroverted personality always represents confident, outgoing and communicating or sharing much with others. The confident and outgoing ones always have a higher self-rated proficiency. If one is more confident and outgoing, then he or she will pay more efforts on how to improve oral English and gain more opportunity to have a communication with others.

As to self-rated proficiency, it is clear that the students with higher self-rated proficiency level use more speaking learning strategies and the students with lower self-rated proficiency level use less speaking learning strategies. In turn, the ones who use varied speaking learning strategies more frequently can always achieve better outcomes in oral English. But as the Internet is only one assisting tool to oral English learning, so, we can not say that it is definitely a deciding factor. But it is sure that frequent use of strategies do contributes to the results of the oral English learning.

At present, however, not too many students regard the speaking learning strategies important, and have not formed a good study mode online. So, I would like to bring up some advice for reference: 1)lowering anxiety and practicing step by step; 2)preparing and planning for using speaking learning strategies; 3)selecting and using proper and suitable strategies for yourself; 4)summarizing your oral study and making adjustments accordingly; 5)going outside and practicing more and more. How to get rid of the barriers of the negative factors and make full use of the positive ones is a wise but a difficult thing. Also, to make full use of the Internet in study and put the speaking learning strategies into the oral English study online are meaningful but still a long way.

 

5. Conclusion

The above discussion of study and research is by no means comprehensive but it deserves our study.

 Nowadays, Internet is an interesting and fashionable thing to us. It has attracted our eyeballs for a long time and occupied plenty of our time as well. The introduction of Internet brings new vigor to teaching and learning process, but it also tends to be inefficient during the study. Thus, the frequency of using speaking learning strategies online is low. This requires the proper use of speaking learning strategies and efforts by the students.

As the study shows, the most frequent speaking learning strategies used online is compensation strategies. It may after all be accepted as a good way to circumvent the weakness in oral English, but not a good and long-time way to improve oral English level. Other strategies do deserve to use and have some requirements to the learners: the use of cognitive strategies and meta-cognitive strategies requires learners know how to make arrangements for study and have the ability to self-control during the study online. The study of affective strategies shows that an enterprising and perseverant mind is advocated in practicing oral English. Memory strategies request the learners to be more diligent and hardworking to English study. At last, the social strategies are functional and demand the students to explore more gateways of practicing oral English online.

It is evident that learners’ factors can easily affect the use of speaking learning strategies online and some factors can not be changed at once. But, if the learners could foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses, and absorb the shining points from the others, there will be a new look of oral English learning.

Speaking learning strategies is by no means helpful to the improvement of oral English, although this paper could not give affirmative support to it. But we can see that the good learners always use speaking learning strategies more frequently.

All in all, it is greatly expected that the learners could make full use of the website and speaking learning strategies during the study online and there will be a better atmosphere of practicing oral English online in the future.

 

Acknowledgements

My initial thanks go to my supervisor Louqing, who patiently supervised my dissertation and was at times very willing to offer me illuminating advice or suggestions. Without her help, I could not have finished this dissertation.

I am also indebted to other teachers and my classmates who have not only offered me their warm encouragements but also shared with me their ideas and books. They are Yangxue, Chenliang, Fanyanlong, wangbo and many others.

My greatest personal debt is to my grandparents and parents, who have cultivated a soul of sensitivity, hospitality, and honesty out of me, and offered a harbor of happiness and sweetness for me.

The remaining weakness and possible errors of the dissertation are entirely my own.

 

References

[1]Skehan, P. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning[M]. London: Edward Arnold, 1991:105.

[2]Tav angarian D.& Leypold M.E., Noiting K., Roser M. & Voigt D. Is e-Learning the solution for individual Learning?[D]Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 2004:245.

[3]Ellis, R. The Study of Second Language Acquisition[M].Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994:154.

[4]Weinstein, C & R. Mayer. The Teaching of Learning Strategies[M]. NewYork. Macmillan, 1986:74.

[5]Chamot, A. The Learning Strategies Handbook. NY[M]. Longman, 1987:96.

[6]Rubin, J. Language Learning Language Strategies: What every teacher should know[M]. Boston: Heinle & Heinele, 1990:156.

[7]Oxford, R. L. Variables Affecting Choices of Language Learning Strategies by University Students[M]. Modern Language Journal, 1989:24.

[8]Ellis, R. The Study of Second Language Acquisition[M].Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994:54.

[9]Cohen, A. D. Language learning: “Insights for learners, Teachers and Researchers”[M]. New York: Newbury House Publishers, 1990:67.

[10]Cohen, A.D. Weaver, S. & Li, T-Y. The Impact of Strategies-based Instruction on Speaking a Foreign Language[M].Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1998:78.

[11]Tarone, E. Some Thoughts on the Notion of “Communication Strategies” [J]. London: Longman, 1983:65-66.

[12]Stern, H. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching[M]. Oxford University Press, 1983:57-58.

[13]Oxford & O’ Malley. A Study of Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Instruction: First Year Report[M]. Rosslyn, Va.: Interstate Research Associates, 1987:155.

[14]Oxford, R.L. Language learning strategies: What Every Teachers Should Know[M]. New York: Newbury House, 1990:54-55.

[15]Cohen, A. Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language[M].Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000:124.

[16]陈晓堂,郑敏.英语学习策略[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2002:56.

[17]文秋芳.英语学习成功之路[M].上海外语教育出版社,2003:54.

[18]Bygate, M. Speaking[M]. Oxford University Press, 1987:85.

[19]McDonugh, S.H. Strategies and Skill in Learning a Foreign Language[M]. London: Edward Amold, 1995:78-79.

[20]Ellis, Rod. Learning a Second Language Learning Through Interaction[M] Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1999:65.

[21]Nunan, D. The Learner-Centered Curriculum: a Study in Second Language Teaching[M]. Cambridge University Press, 1990:45.

[22]Dornyei, Z. On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quaterly[M].TESOL Quarterly, 1995:75.

[23]Huang, X. H. & M. Van Naersson. Learning Strategies for oral communication[J]. Applied Linguistic, 1987:287-307.

[24]陈思齐.英语专业大学生交际策略的使用研究[J].外语教学,1990:24-26.

[25]Ehrman, M & Oxford. Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies[M]. Modern Language, 1989:154.

[26]Bialystock, E. The role of conscious strategies: A psychological Analysis of Second Language use[M]. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1981:25.

[27]陈善琼.语言学习策略在中学英语口语教学中的应用[D]. 四川师范大学,2007:85.

 

Appendices

浙江科技学院非英语专业大学生网上英语口语学习策略调查问卷

                           

一、个人简况

姓名:              

性别:                 A 男            B女  

             

科别:                A 理工科        B文科 

你的性格特征:                 A内向           B外向       

你认为你目前的英语综合水平:   A很差           B一般         C优秀

二、网上英语口语学习策略调查

(元认知策略使用情况调查)

1、我寻求好的网上口语练习的时间和地点。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

2、上网学习时,我能把握上网学习的时间和内容。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

 

3、对于如何上网提高英语口语能力,在不同时期,我有明确的目标。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

4、我总在寻求更好的口语学习方法。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

5、我思考和评价自己的上网学习方法从而找出存在的问题和解决方法。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

6、在说话前, 我先把想说的话组织好再说。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(认知策略使用情况调查)

7、我浏览各种英文网站、听英文录音VOA,BBC,. etc及看英文视频等,听和练习口语。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

8、在用英语聊天时,我会猜想对方下一句会说什么。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

9、听VOA,BBC,. etc 或欧美剧等英文视频时,我会模仿其说话方式、语音语调及用词。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

10、听VOA,BBC,. etc 或欧美剧等英文视频时,我会小声跟着说。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(记忆策略使用情况调查)

11、我反复观看喜欢的欧美剧,以便加深印象。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

12、记单词时, 我会想到同根的词或近义词、反义词等相关词汇。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

13、在英文网站上遇到新单词我就猜它的意思。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

14、一遇到生词就查字典吗?

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

15、我把上网遇到的生词记在单词本上。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

16、我用金山词霸等网上字典在线查找生词的意义及用法。

 A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(补偿策略使用情况调查)

17、QQ聊或聊天室语音等方式交流时, 我会努力猜测TA接下去将说什么。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

18、QQ聊或聊天室语音等方式交流时, 当不懂对方所言时,会请求对方重复或放慢语速。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

19、QQ聊或聊天室语音等方式交流时, 当与别人交谈时想不起某个词 时, 我会使用同义词(组)。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

20、当不能表达自己时, 我会举例等方式进行解释。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(情感策略使用情况调查)

21、在网络环境中害怕别人发现你英语方面的不足吗? 

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

22、为了把口语说好,我经常自我鼓励。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

23、说英语紧张时, 我会想办法消除它。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

24、上网学习英语后,我的学习兴趣提高了。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

25、我会与家人、同学、老师等探讨口语学习的感受

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(社交策略使用情况调查)

26、用英语写邮件或聊天时,我请对方纠正我的错误。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

27、通过网上交流很容易在学习上和同学结成朋友。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

28、必要时,交谈借助手势、表情等进行表达。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

29、交谈时,我把精力放在意思表达上。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

30、在口语表达时,我直接向对方表示自己遇到困难,向对方寻求帮助。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

浙江科技学院非英语专业大学生非网络状态下英语口语学习策略调查问卷

(元认知策略使用情况调查)

1、我寻求好的网上口语练习的时间和地点。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

2、学习时,我能把握学习的时间和内容。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

 

3、对于如何提高英语口语能力,在不同时期,我有明确的目标。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

4、我总在寻求更好的口语学习方法。

A从不     B很少    C有时      D经常    E总是

5、我思考和评价自己的学习方法从而找出存在的问题和解决方法。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

6、在说话前, 我先把想说的话组织好再说。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(认知策略使用情况调查)

7、我参加有利于英语提高的活动,听和练习口语。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

8、在用英语聊天时,我会猜想对方下一句会说什么。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

9、听英语时,我会模仿其说话方式、语音语调及用词。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

10、听英语时,我会小声跟着说。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(记忆策略使用情况调查)

11、我反复朗读喜欢的英语文章,以便加深印象。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

12、记单词时, 我会想到同根的词或近义词、反义词等相关词汇。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

13、遇到新单词我就猜它的意思。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

14、一遇到生词就查字典吗?

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

15、我把遇到的生词记在单词本上。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

16、我会努力查找生词的意义及用法。

 A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(补偿策略使用情况调查)

17、英语聊天时,我会努力猜测TA接下去将说什么。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

18、英语聊天时,当不懂对方所言时,会请求对方重复或放慢语速。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

19、英语聊天时, 当与别人交谈时想不起某个词时, 我会使用同义词(组)。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

20、当不能表达自己时, 我会举例等方式进行解释。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(情感策略使用情况调查)

21、害怕别人发现你英语方面的不足吗? 

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

22、为了把口语说好,我经常自我鼓励。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

23、说英语紧张时, 我会想办法消除它。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

24、一番努力学习后,我的学习兴趣提高了。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

25、我会与家人、同学、老师等探讨口语学习的感受

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

(社交策略使用情况调查)

26、用英语聊天时,我请对方纠正我的错误。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

27、英语打开新的世界,结交更多的朋友。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

28、必要时,交谈借助手势、表情等进行表达。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

29、交谈时,我把精力放在意思表达上。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

30、在口语表达时,我直接向对方表示自己遇到困难,向对方寻求帮助。

A从不    B很少      C有时     D经常   E总是

谢谢您的合作!

 

诚 信 承 诺

我谨在此承诺:本人所写的毕业论文《基于网络的英语口语学习策略研究》均系本人独立完成,没有抄袭行为,凡涉及其他作者的观点和材料,均作了注释,若有不实,后果由本人承担。

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